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Working with text files
Working with stacks
Using stacks as libraries
Appendix: Debugging text-based CGIs
With the introduction of the 4.0 engine, LiveCode no longer supports traditional CGI access. CGIs have been replaced by the remarkable iRev product, which allows direct LiveCode scripting inside web pages, without the need for external CGIs. However, in some cases the more traditional approach is required and in these cases CGIs are still useful. For this tutorial you will need a copy of Rev 3.5 or older. If you have a previous copy of LiveCode (formerly called Revolution,) use that version. If not, and you do have a legal licensed copy of LiveCode, contact me at the email address below and I'll see what I can do.
This tutorial will refer to "Revolution" throughout, since that was the last engine that supported CGIs directly at the time of this writing. Since then, LC 7.0 was re-enabled as a CGI engine, so you can also use that version or a later one as well. The installation notes below have been updated for this.
CGI is an abbreviation for Common Gateway Interface, a standard for interfacing external applications with information servers such as web servers. Unlike plain HTML documents, which are static, a CGI program can create and deliver customized dynamic information in real-time, on the fly as needed.
Common uses for CGI include processing forms, delivering automated email, and creating customized or dynamic content for web pages such as database inquiries, rotating photos, or local time or weather conditions. These tasks are commonly done using various programming languages such as perl, java, or php. You can also create CGI scripts using Revolution's language. This tutorial will show you how.
How they work
CGIs are requested by a browser as part of the web page URL. When the server sees such a request, it retrieves the requested script and hands it off to whatever application the script specifies. The script does whatever it is programmed to do and returns some data to the server, which then sends the results back to the user's browser.
If you already know its language, the strongest advantage in using Revolution for CGIs is simple familiarity. Revolution is a robust language that is easy to use, and you can employ the skills you already have.
Another advantage is speed. The Revolution engine is very fast, and because it runs without the GUI, startup time is virtually instantaneous. In addition, most servers cache the engine and need to do only minimal loading to create an instance of your application each time a CGI request is made. But even the first time the script is run, initialization time is negligible. While a Revolution CGI is not suitable for sites with extremely heavy traffic, it does just fine for most.
Revolution CGIs are very safe and difficult to abuse. Of course, CGIs written in any language are only as secure as you make them, but Revolution contains no known vulnerabilities that can be exploited remotely. As long as you don't process parameters indiscriminately with generic "do" or "send" commands, and if you limit the locations where your script writes files, a Revolution CGI will be secure.
If your script needs to process parameters, be sure to examine them before allowing your script to act on them. For example, don't write a script containing the line do the params; a malicious request could send a parameter containing a command to delete a file and your script would blithely execute it. In addition, don't create scripts that write files outside the CGI folder if those files must be secure.
If your scripts follow these common sense rules, there isn't any good way to hack into a Revolution CGI.
Rename the application "revolution" (note the lower-case "r".) All the examples in the tutorial use this spelling, so if you are following along, you'll need to make the same change to your copy.
Installing the correct engine:
The engine that runs the IDE will not work, you need to install a copy of the engine that is used to build standalones. This is located in the main Revolution program folder inside a subfolder called Runtime. Within the Runtime folder are several versions of the standalone engine for various operating systems. Choose the one which is compatible with the OS that will run your CGIs.
Revolution/LC discontinued support for CGI in versions between 3.5 and 7.0. If your server is running a 32-bit system you can use either version but if it is running a 64-bit system it will require the 64-bit build of LC 7.0 or higher.
Note for Mac OS X servers: The actual engine file is located inside the Standalone.app application bundle. Control-click on the Standalone.app file and choose "Show package contents" from the menu. Inside the package, work your way into the folders until you find the Standalone file in Contents/MacOS/Standalone. That is the engine file to use.
Whichever engine you are using, place the engine file in the OS X cgi folder, which is located at /Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables. Note that this is the main Library folder on the hard drive, not the Library folder inside your user folder. When referencing the CGI-Executables folder from a URL, OS X recognizes "cgi-bin" as a valid alias for the "CGI-Executables" folder, so you can use either of those folder names interchangeably in URLs.
If you are using OS X, Apache is already preinstalled. All you need to do is make sure that you have enabled Web Sharing in the Sharing pane of the System Preferences.
Note to IIS users on Windows XP: If you are using IIS, you can follow these instructions for installation, which were helpfully submitted to the Revolution mailing list by Dave Cragg:
You can place the engine anywhere on the XP hard drive. You then just have to configure IIS to link the extension you use for the cgi scripts to the Rev cgi engine. (In my case, I use ".mt") You do this in the IIS administration utility. The general procedure is like this (probably useful to read the online docs for IIS configuration before starting):
Dave also mentions these two hints (which may make more sense after you have worked through this tutorial:)
In the IIS Admin Utility, create a virtual directory for placing your cgi scripts.
In the Admin Utility, select the virtual directory and select properties (File menu or right click??)
Set the Execute Permissions for this directory to "Scripts and Executables"
Click the Configuration button (You will se a list of mappings between file extensions and executables)
Enter the path to the executable (or use Browse) and the extension of your scripts (e.g. .mt). IMPORTANT: After the executable path add " %s %s". For example, in my case the path is: F:\mc_cgi\cmc.exe %s %s
The cgi scripts under IIS don't need the #! line that you use under Linux/OS X (but will cause no problem if present)
I've found it useful to add a short wait at the end of the startup handler, like this:on startup ## usual cgi stuff wait 20 milliseconds end startup
Most operating systems require that files have the proper permissions set; without the right permissions, Revolution will not run. You will need to set the permissions for every new file you place into the cgi folder on the server, including the Revolution engine itself. In almost all cases, file permissions should be set to 755 (readable and executable by all, writable by owner.) This setting prohibits a script from writing to the file, however; if you need to write to a file then see the "Working with text files" section of the tutorial for some suggestions.
You can use either an FTP program or a terminal program to set permissions. If you are using an FTP program, connect to your remote server as you normally do, and use its built-in functions to set the permissions of the Revolution application. Most FTP programs provide a menu item or some other way to set file permissions. If you want to use an FTP program to connect to your own machine, you may be able to use "127.0.0.1" as the local IP, and navigate to your cgi folder from there.
If you are using a terminal program, log into the server, cd to the cgi folder and issue chmod 755 revolution to set the permissions for the engine file. Depending on the configuration, some operating systems may not work with these permissions; if you have trouble, try setting permissions this way: chmod 555 revolution. We have heard that some Linux servers require this.
Hint: If setting permissions isn't your thing, then just do it once for the Revolution engine, and once more for a blank text file stored inside your cgi folder. After that, whenever you need a new file, duplicate the blank and use that. The new copy will retain the old permissions.